Ferdinand Pauwels — Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door Many major events caused Europe to change around the start of the 16th century, starting with the Fall of Constantinople inthe fall of Muslim Spain and the discovery of the Americas inand Martin Luther 's Protestant Reformation in Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.
Europe, to The term Reformation refers in general to the major religious changes that swept across Europe during the s, transforming worship, politics, society, and basic cultural patterns.
These were separate from the Latin Catholic Church in organization and different from it in theology. Many other dissident groups and individuals, collectively known as the Radical Reformation, also emerged during the turmoil of the s and s, building communities despite frequent persecution. Ongoing efforts to reform the old church took on new urgency in response to these challenges, leading to a distinct Catholic Reformation.
The Protestant Reformation was embedded in larger processes that included the emergence of national states, new encounters with the outside world, and deep socioeconomic shifts.
The breakdown of religious unity and the establishment of multiple churches in this era highlights the central role that religion played in early modern European self-understanding.
Doctrinal and ceremonial changes had consequences for every aspect of society, from family life and gender roles to art and philosophy. As we learn more about different historical actors and their varying goals, we can no longer view the Reformation as a single conflict between Luther and the popes or as a single movement, positive or negative.
Rather, we must approach the Reformation by looking carefully at the spiritual aspirations, the cultural frameworks, and the material circumstances of the people whose lives it transformed.
The idea of reformation had a long history in Western thought beforewith two main meanings: Because the term implied renewal or even rebirth, it could also be associated with the renaissance of classical learning.
When evangelical thinkers in the early s called for radical changes in the church, they too described their project as a "reformation," as did those who sought to improve the church from within. Most sixteenth-century reformers hoped that a single purified church would be the outcome, while others saw religious division as a sign of the imminent Apocalypse.
Only afterwhen it became clear that the division among western European Christians was permanent, did the term "Reformation" become the name for the movements that created the division as well as for the period during which the division took place. Developments in formal theology, in broader cultural life, and in different European regions all confirm the continuity between the Reformation and earlier historical processes.
For example, disputes among academic theologians raised issues similar to those later addressed by Luther and other Reformation thinkers.
Late medieval followers of St. With the growth of universities and the spread of printed books aroundmany more thinkers became aware of these debates about the fundamentals of Christian faith, setting the stage for Reformation controversies. Other scholars point to the Renaissance and particularly to humanist philology as preparing the ground for religious turmoil.
Although few historians today see the Renaissance as the birth of modern individualism, the recovery of Greek and Latin texts on philosophy and philology during the s did spur intellectuals to look at the writings of the church fathers and the Bible in new ways.
Even when motivated by orthodox zeal, careful printed editions and new translations of sacred texts raised new questions about the way the church interpreted its mission.
Italian humanists such as Lorenzo Valla led the way in applying the new philology to sacred texts, but the humanist with the greatest impact in northern Europe was Erasmus of Rotterdam.
In addition to editing both classical literature and the church fathers, Erasmus in issued the first printed edition of the New Testament in Greek, together with a new Latin translation that changed the meaning of several key passages.
Erasmus was also a best-selling author of Latin textbooks—such as Encomium Moriae ; English translation, In Praise of Folly, published —that savagely mocked popular superstitions and greedy clergymen.
Finally, the Protestant Reformation shared important features with the Hussite movement that swept through Bohemia in the early s. The teachings of Jan Hus contained several ideas that Luther later engaged: Anger about the special privileges that priests enjoyed and about the fiscal impact of an international church on local societies heightened anticlerical feelings across Europe at this time.
In Italy educated priests such as Gasparo Contarini combined prayer and study while organizing groups to improve church services for the laity. Among all these groups, humanist ideas and connections played an important role. Evangelical ideas were therefore widespread in Europe, yet the course of reform differed enormously from place to place.
To understand this variation, argues historian Euan Cameron, we must analyze the different coalitions that formed and sometimes dissolved around evangelical ideas.
Moreover, criticism of the Roman church was already widespread in Germany, as were lively popular piety and interest in correct religious practice.
Many early adherents saw Luther as a German champion against a corrupt Roman hierarchy and its financial abuses, and approved of his attacks on the special status of the clergy; others found spiritual consolation in his understanding of salvation, thought that his calls for "spiritual freedom" would bring about a just world with lighter burdens, or shared his belief in an imminent Apocalypse.
The earliest representatives of the Radical Reformation also emerged during the early s from the circles around Luther and Zwingli; while they joined Luther and Zwingli in attacking the existing church, they often called for radical reform of society and eventually diverged on key doctrinal issues as well.
Political and social tensions converged with new religious ideas to produce a mass movement in the empire, partly because many German and Swiss towns and even villages enjoyed considerable autonomy. During the decisive years between andmoreover, political circumstances in Germany delayed action against Luther.
Luther had powerful supporters among both churchmen and lay leaders, including his lord Frederick the Wise of Saxony, whereas the death of Emperor Maximilian and the struggle to elect his successor Charles V preoccupied the imperial authorities.At that time divorce was very rare and the Catholic Church did not allow them except in the most unusual cases.
To get a divorce the Pope had to believe that there was a religious reason for it.
To get a divorce the Pope had . The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority . Lutheranism Essay Examples. 13 total results. words. 1 page. A Description of the Reformation as a Period of Time Where Rebels Came With Intention of Changing.
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The idea of reformation had a long history in Western thought before , with two main meanings: to modify in general (to reform) and to improve something by returning it . The reformation was a period of time where rebels came about with the intension of changing the way people looked at the Church.
If there are two people that were the best of the best at causing ruckus, the two people would be John Calvin and Martin Luther. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.