The members of the Peoples Temple settlement in Guyana, under the direction of the Reverend Jim Jones, fed a poison-laced drink to their children, administered the potion to their infants, and drank it themselves. Their bodies were found lying together, arm in arm; over perished. How could such a tragedy occur?
In particular older unmarried women are stigmatised in certain countries in Asia [ 25 ]. Religion was also included as a measure of SEP because in Asia, particularly South Asia, being religious is the norm [ 26 ] and not being religious is a minority status.
This minority status may therefore lead to a diminished status within society. In addition, having a minority faith may also confer a lower status within the community the person lives in, for example a Muslim living in a predominantly Buddhist society.
Types of outcome measures The primary outcome measures were suicide and suicide attempts. Report characteristics No date or language restrictions were applied to publications. Non-English papers were screened and extracted with the help of a native speaker.
All studies, regardless of publication status were eligible to be included in this review. If a single study was reported in multiple reports, the report with the most comprehensive data was used to extract data and the other reports used to supplement this.
Information sources We conducted searches of computer databases as follows: The search strategy is included in the supplementary material see Additional file 1. Reference searches were conducted on all included papers, and forward citations on key papers and reviews [ 202427 — 29 ].
A selection of experts one from each country included in the review if one was available were sent a list of all papers identified for inclusion in the review and asked to review these and highlight any papers missed.
The last search was run on 20th May For papers where data were not presented for the association of the exposure SEP and outcome, we contacted authors for these data if the study was published in the last 5 years.
Study selection Eligibility assessment of titles and abstracts were performed by 2 independent reviewers and disagreements checked by a third independent reviewer. Full texts of all potentially eligible studies were obtained and these were then screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers and discrepancies resolved by consensus.
For multi-country papers where the data was extractable for each country separately, each country was included as a separate study. There were 3 multi-country publications [ 30 — 32 ], resulting in 7 studies being included in the review.
Quality assessment We assessed the quality of publications included in this review for risk of bias, by using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for assessing the quality of non-randomised studies [ 33 ]. The assessment was done at the study level.
This scale utilises a star system which judges the quality of a paper on three broad areas: The scale is not comparable between study designs and so can only assess the quality of the study compared to other studies of a similar design.
We used an adapted version of this scale in order for the assessment criteria to be relevant to the exposure and outcomes of interest see Additional file 1. Two independent reviewers assessed all included English language papers and the lead author, with the aid of a translator, assessed the quality of the non-English papers.
Analysis All data extracted were entered into a Microsoft Access database.
|The American Medical Association Goes Wobbly on Physician-Assisted Suicide | THCB||In a recent issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, a group of physicians, assisted by a lawyer and a philosopher, defend physician assisted suicide. Principles Before addressing the ethical arguments in the article itself, let us be clear about the subject matter.|
|Purchase Solution||End of Life Suicide: Secular Perspectives Suicide has been unacceptable in most western societies for centuries.|
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Studies were described according to the country of data collection, sampling frame, sample size, response rate, sex, age, the type of outcome and outcome ascertainment.Background. Forty percent of the world’s suicide deaths occur in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) in Asia.
There is a recognition that social factors, such as socioeconomic position (SEP), play an important role in determining suicidal risk in high income countries, but less is known about the association in LAMIC.
Moral relativism is an important topic in metaethics. It is also widely discussed outside philosophy (for example, by political and religious leaders), and it is controversial among philosophers and nonphilosophers alike. The Position Of Suicide Terrorism In Terrorism by: Violeta Matovic The transformation of the very content of the concept of security, whose formulation was based on the analysis of safety risks and forms of threats to security of the people, property and the state as a whole, began internationally after the end of the Cold War.
Other topics discuss the epidemiology, risk factors evaluation, and management of suicidal ideation and behavior in children and adolescents, as well as the effect of antidepressants on suicide risk in pediatric and adult patients.
Gender and Suicide Method: Do Women Avoid Facial Disfiguration? Valerie J. Callanan & Mark S. Davis Published online: 27 August The results support the position that women who commit suicide are more likely than men who commit analysis of handgun suicides found that % of men shot themselves in the head compared to % of.
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