Primary Documents - Treaty of Versailles: Articles and Annexes Political Clauses for Europe Article 31 Germany, recognising that the Treaties of April 19,which established the status of Belgium before the war, no longer conform to the requirements of the situation, consents to the abrogation of the said Treaties and undertakes immediately to recognise and to observe whatever conventions may be entered into by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, or by any of them, in concert with the Governments of Belgium and of the Netherlands, to replace the said Treaties of If her formal adhesions should be required to such conventions or to any of their stipulations, Germany undertakes immediately to give it. Sponsored Links Article 32 Germany recognises the full sovereignty of Belgium over the whole of the contested territory of Moresnet called Moresnet neutre.
As the conflict progressed, additional countries from around the globe became drawn into the conflict on both sides. The motives were twofold: German submarine warfare against merchant ships trading with France and Britain, which led to the sinking of the RMS Lusitania and the loss of American lives; and the interception of the German Zimmerman Telegramurging for Mexico to declare war against the United States.
The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions.
This speech outlined a policy of free tradeopen agreementsdemocracy, and self-determination. It also called for a diplomatic end to the war, international disarmament, the withdrawal of the Central Powers from occupied territories, the creation of a Polish statethe redrawing of Europe's borders along ethnic lines, and the formation of a League of Nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states.
The Fourteen Points were based on the research of the Inquirya team of about advisors led by foreign-policy advisor Edward M. Houseinto the topics likely to arise in the expected peace conference.
Armistice of 11 November During the autumn ofthe Central Powers began to collapse. Following negotiations, the Allied powers and Germany signed an armisticewhich came into effect on 11 November while German forces were still positioned in France and Belgium.
Occupation of the Rhineland The terms of the armistice called for an immediate evacuation of German troops from occupied BelgiumFranceand Luxembourg within fifteen days.
In lateAllied troops entered Germany and began the occupation.
Blockade of Germany Both the German Empire and Great Britain were dependent on imports of food and raw materials, primarily from the Americaswhich had to be shipped across the Atlantic Ocean.
The Blockade of Germany — was a naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers.
The German Kaiserliche Marine was mainly restricted to the German Bight and used commerce raiders and unrestricted submarine warfare for a counter-blockade. The German Board of Public Health in December stated thatGerman civilians had died during the Allied blockade, although an academic study in put the death toll atpeople.
Greater Poland Uprising —19 In latea Polish government was formed and an independent Poland proclaimed. In December, Poles launched an uprising within the Prussian province of Posen. Fighting lasted until February, when an armistice was signed that left the province in Polish hands, but technically still a German possession.
From left to right: Furthermore, German negotiators were excluded to deny them an opportunity to divide the Allies diplomatically. This council was replaced by the "Council of Five", formed from each countries foreign ministers, to discuss minor matters.
These four men met in closed sessions to make all the major decisions, which were later ratified by the entire assembly. The minor powers attended a weekly "Plenary Conference" that discussed issues in a general forum but made no decisions.
These members formed over 50 commissions that made various recommendations, many of which were incorporated into the final text of the treaty. France had also been more physically damaged than any other nation the so-called zone rouge Red Zone ; the most industrialized region and the source of most coal and iron ore in the north-east had been devastated and in the final days of the war mines had been flooded and railways, bridges and factories destroyed.
Not even Napoleon himself could touch England. You are both sheltered; we are not". Clemenceau had told the Chamber of Deputiesin Decemberthat his goal was to maintain an alliance with both countries.
Clemenceau accepted the offer, in return for an occupation of the Rhineland for fifteen years and that Germany would also demilitarise the Rhineland.
In April and Maythe French and Germans held separate talks, on mutually acceptable arrangements on issues like reparation, reconstruction and industrial collaboration.
Britain had suffered little land devastation during the war. Lloyd George also wanted to neutralize the German navy to keep the Royal Navy as the greatest naval power in the world; dismantle the German colonial empire with several of its territorial possessions ceded to Britain and others being established as League of Nations mandatesa position opposed by the Dominions.
This position fluctuated following the US entry into the war. Wilson talked of the German aggressors who there could be no compromised peace with. Wilson firmly opposed harsh treatment on Germany.The British Empire lasted for half a millennia and stretched to the furthest corners of the Earth. However, it was not hatched in isolation and was influenced by political, social, cultural, technological and scientific trends from the home country, immediate neighbours, Europe and the wider world.
The Young Republic. Following independence, the American states began the process of drafting new state constitutions, many of which reflected increased democratic elements (women and slaves excepted)..
The nation’s governing document was the Articles of Confederation whose weaknesses led to a “critical period" in the r-bridal.comvative elements in the country were especially disturbed by.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from until The forum originated with a summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6.
For more than half a century, it has been widely recognized that the Treaty of Versailles, founded on retribution against Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created the circumstances that led inevitably to World War II.
Related Documents: Essay about Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles Essay •The Treaty of Versailles dealt specifically with Germany and was the major discussion during the draw up of the peace settlement whereas the other treaties dealt with the geo-political and economic future of Europe.
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