This branch of psychology looks at the influences of diverse cultural aspects on how individuals, groups, and populations behave. It is very different from other branches and involves two research methods, emic and etic. It is also applied to various other types of subfields of psychology Difference Compared to Other Branches Many other branches of psychology center on how family members, friends, and other people influence the behavior of a person, but the majority do not consider the powerful effect that culture may have on the actions of individuals. This discipline is often referred to as a form of research methodology, instead of a completely separate branch within psychology.
University of New Mexico, USA Abstract The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction.
This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations.
It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework CDLFwhich describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations.
The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers.
It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences.
Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.
Distance education; online learning; pedagogy; multicultural education Why Multicultural Education and Training is a Growing Concern Numerous factors are converging that make teaching and learning in cross-cultural and multicultural contexts more commonplace.
Expanding world trade and globalization of industry, finance, and many professions are creating a world in which cross-cultural interactions occur more frequently than at any time in the past Friedman, As well, increasing specialization within many professions has led to a widely dispersed audience for targeted education and training.
Professionals wishing to stay current or students wanting to develop specialized skills that match the needs of a rapidly changing world demand access to proper educational opportunities, even if this requires international travel or distance learning approaches Berge, Simpler and cheaper telecommunications, in particular, fuel a growing willingness to teach and learn across cultures.
Advances in Internet technologies and applications make open and distance learning a fully viable alternative to traditional education, creating a natural environment for the development of effective virtual learning communities. But contrary to the growing flatness that Friedman reports, cultural diversity remains apparent among learners, perhaps owing to deeply rooted cultural values and modes of thinking that are difficult to separate from learning processes Nisbett, A growing appreciation of cultural diversity is demonstrated by more than its acknowledgement and tolerance, but also by a desire to preserve that diversity as a valuable asset for addressing the many challenges faced by the global community now and in the future.
Additionally, one can recognize a strong desire to preserve diversity in response to the threat of loss of cultural identity in the face of globalization and because of the benefits of community cohesiveness through unique cultural expression Mason, The growing need for educational access leads students rightly to demand culturally adaptive learning experiences that allow full development of the individual Visser, As noted by Pincasstudents entering into professional education in a multicultural context not aligned with their own culture can experience significant conflict.
This article provides a summary and consolidation of useful existing literature to aid in developing these skills. For instruction to do the most good for students, instructional providers must be cognizant of the cultures of their learners and how those cultures manifest themselves in learning preferences Nisbett, Cultural sensitivity is not just one-way, however.
They should become cognizant of how their own cultural perspectives are represented in the design decisions they make. Furthermore, instructional providers should examine the assumptions they hold about how learners will and should respond, keeping an open mind for potentially unexpected responses.
Moreover, they must balance the need to help students adapt to specific professional, academic, and mainstream cultures which instructors, by proxy, represent and the need to embrace the culture in which the student is embedded Henderson, This is no small challenge.
When people demonstrate differences or similarities, it is easy to confuse these levels because their influences combine, making them difficult to distinguish.
The resulting uncertainty can lead to false assumptions and difficulties in interactions with others. This is just as true in education and training as it is in other life situations.
Hofstede and Hofstede present these levels as a pyramid, with human nature as the base all people share, and personality as the peak, being unique to the individual.
Culture forms an expansive middle portion of the pyramid, reflecting its multiple layers of group interactions e. The authors have chosen to represent these influences differently in Figure 1 to highlight an increased complexity and to emphasize the nature of these constructs as mutually influencing sources of thought and behavior.
Human nature comprises the assumed commonalities all humans share because they are members of the same species — Homo sapiens. People inherit these ways of thinking and behaving because they result from our genetic makeup and the constraints this places on how they respond to the world. These constraints come in the form of sensory capabilities and other physiological traits, as well as predispositions toward socialization, for example.
But one can, in practice, see commonalities across the human species. Among many other things, culture includes, There are many layers of culture, from work and family cultures to community and regional cultures up to national and even international cultures based on shared heritage and language.
Culture is learned but is also constrained by human nature.Cross Cultural Communication.
Do you want to be most effective in communicating with people who are different from you? Participants in this class identify ways to reduce misperceptions and increase communication effectiveness with others in the work environment: superiors, peers, subordinates, and .
Looking for a federal job? Learn about the GS occupational group, which includes federal jobs in social science, psychology, welfare, and more! Find peer-reviewed journals that publish Developmental Psychology.
Journal descriptions are excerpts from their websites; impact factors are from Thomson Scientific's Journal Citation Reports (higher numbers means a greater number of average citations of new papers in the following 2 years).
MUST be Plagiarism FREE, Have Notes on each slide, USE Citations and ReferencesApplication of Cross-Cultural Psychology PresentationImagine you are a consultant for an organization, and they would like you to work on developing their core values.
Concentrations Manual. Consulting Psychology 4. Cross-Cultural and Diversity Psychology 5. Forensic Psychology 6. Health Psychology OR, presentation related to Consulting Psychology at a professional meeting OR submission of a paper for publication in a journal related to Consulting Psychology.
Welcome to the official Stanford Prison Experiment website, which features extensive information about a classic psychology experiment that inspired an award-winning movie, New York Times bestseller, and documentary DVD.