Congressional pocket handbook

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Congressional pocket handbook

Fluoride is distinct in this regard among the halides. The identity of the solvent can have a dramatic effect on the equilibrium shifting it to the right-hand side, greatly increasing the rate of decomposition. Structure of fluoride salts[ edit ] Salts containing fluoride are numerous and adopt myriad structures.

Typically the fluoride anion is surrounded by four or six cations, as is typical for other halides. Sodium fluoride and sodium Congressional pocket handbook adopt the same structure. The difluorides of the transition metals often adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride structures.

Inorganic chemistry[ edit ] Upon treatment with a standard acid, fluoride salts convert to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. Oxidation of fluoride gives fluorine. Its closest chemical relative is hydroxidesince both have similar geometries.

Naked fluoride[ edit ] When relatively unsolvatedfor example in nonprotic solvents, fluoride anions are called "naked". Naked fluoride is a very strong Lewis base[15] it is easily reacted with Lewis acids, forming strong adducts.

Naked fluoride salts have been prepared as tetramethylammonium fluoridetetramethylphosphonium fluorideand tetrabutylammonium fluoride has been reported.

Congressional pocket handbook

Biochemistry[ edit ] At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is usually fully ionised to fluoride. In biochemistryfluoride and hydrogen fluoride are equivalent. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, is considered to be a micronutrient for human health, necessary to prevent dental cavities, and to promote healthy bone growth.

The fluorine compounds decompose into products including fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most bioavailable form of fluorine, and as such, tea is potentially a vehicle for fluoride dosing. The remainder can be retained in the oral cavity, and lower digestive tract.

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The study indicates that tea drinking communities are at an increased risk of dental and skeletal fluorosisin the case where water fluoridation is in effect. At much higher doses and frequent exposure, fluoride causes health complications and can be toxic.

Fluorochemical industryBiological aspects of fluorineand Fluorine Fluoride salts and hydrofluoric acid are the main fluorides of industrial value.

Compounds with C-F bonds fall into the realm of organofluorine chemistry. The main uses of fluoride, in terms of volume, are in the production of cryolite, Na3AlF6. It is used in aluminium smelting.

Formerly, it was mined, but now it is derived from hydrogen fluoride. Fluorite is used on a large scale to separate slag in steel-making. Mined fluorite CaF2 is a commodity chemical used in steel-making.

Hydrofluoric acid and its anhydrous form, hydrogen fluorideis also used in the production of fluorocarbons. Hydrofluoric acid has a variety of specialized applications, including its ability to dissolve glass.

Fluoride therapy and Water fluoridation Fluoride is sold in tablets for cavity prevention. Fluoride-containing compounds, such as sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate are used in topical and systemic fluoride therapy for preventing tooth decay.

They are used for water fluoridation and in many products associated with oral hygiene. The fluoridation of water is known to prevent tooth decay [21] [22] and is considered by the U.

Fluoride - Wikipedia

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as "one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century". For the method of action for cavity prevention, see Fluoride therapy. Fluoridation of water has its critics see Water fluoridation controversy.

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Congressional pocket handbook

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