Other examples Climate change impacts on biodiversity in the Arctic The Arctic, Antarctic and high latitudes have had the highest rates of warming, and this trend is projected to continue, as the above-mentioned Global Biodiversity Outlook 3 notes p. In the Arctic, it is not just a reduction in the extent of sea ice, but its thickness and age. Less ice means less reflective surface meaning more rapid melting. The polar bear depends on sea ice.
Landscape Conservation Cooperatives Terminology An ecosystem refers to the animals, plants, and microorganisms that live in one place, as well as the environmental conditions that support them. Ecosystem services include the products and services provided by ecosystems, such as food, fuel, timber, water, clean air, and medicines.
It also includes less material benefits, such as regulation of local climate conditions and aesthetic value or cultural identity. A food web is a group of predators and prey that interact in a habitat or ecosystem.
A stressor is a factor that reduces the health or productivity of an ecosystem i. Earlier springs have led to earlier nesting for 28 migratory bird species on the East Coast of the United States. These asynchronies can include mismatches in the timing of migration, breeding, pest avoidance, and food availability.
Growth and survival are reduced when migrants arrive at a location before or after food sources are present. In recent decades, in both land and aquatic environments, plants and animals have moved to higher elevations at a median rate of 36 feet 0. While this means a range expansion for some species, for others it means movement into less hospitable habitat, increased competition, or range reduction, with some species having nowhere to go because they are already at the top of a mountain or at the northern limit of land suitable for their habitat.
As rivers and streams warm, warmwater fish are expanding into areas previously inhabited by coldwater species. See the Agriculture and Food Supply Impacts page for information about how habitats of marine species have shifted northward as waters have warmed.
Top of Page Food Web Disruptions The impact of climate change on a particular species can ripple through a food web and affect a wide range of other organisms.
For example, the figure below shows the complex nature of the food web for polar bears. Not only is the decline of sea ice impairing polar bear populations by reducing the extent of their primary habitat, it is also negatively impacting them via food web effects.
Declines in the duration and extent of sea ice in the Arctic leads to declines in the abundance of ice algae, which thrive in nutrient-rich pockets in the ice.
These algae are eaten by zooplankton, which are in turn eaten by Arctic cod, an important food source for many marine mammals, including seals. Seals are eaten by polar bears.
Hence, declines in ice algae can contribute to declines in polar bear populations. The loss of sea ice can ultimately affect the entire food web, from algae and plankton to fish to mammals.
NOAA Click the image to see a larger version. Top of Page The Pika The American pika is a hamster-sized relative of the rabbit that is found in the cold, mountainous of the western United States. Because of their sensitivity to hot temperatures, the warming climate is causing pika populations to die off at elevations below 7, feet.
Of 25 pika populations studied in the Great Basin between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, more than one third have disappeared in the past few decades.Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity Céline Bellard, # 1 Cleo Bertelsmeier, # 1 Paul Leadley, 1 Wilfried Thuiller, 2 and Franck Courchamp 1 1 Ecologie, Systématique & Evolution, UMR CNRS .
Potential impacts of climate change on genetic diversity are little understood, though it is thought that genetic diversity will increase the resilience of species to climate change.
Modelling studies on the potential impact of climate change on species indicates poleward shifts and changes in altitude, range expansions or contractions. Biodiversity is affected by climate change, with negative consequences for human well-being, but biodiversity, through the ecosystem services it supports, also makes an important contribution to both climate-change mitigation and adaptation.
Climate change impacts on biodiversity.
Climate change is predicted to be the greatest long-term threat to biodiversity in many regions and is listed as a key threatening process under the Threatened Species Conservation Act and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (Commonwealth).
Climate change impacts on biodiversity in the Arctic The Arctic, Antarctic and high latitudes have had the highest rates of warming, and this trend is projected to continue, as the above-mentioned Global Biodiversity Outlook 3 notes (p.
56). Climate change effects on biodiversity. The multiple components of climate change are anticipated to affect all the levels of biodiversity, from organism to biome levels (Figure 1, and reviewed in detail in, e.g., Parmesan ).They primarily concern various strengths and forms of fitness decrease, which are expressed at different levels, and have effects on individuals, populations, species.