See Article History Welfare state, concept of government in which the state or a well-established network of social institutions plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of citizens.
Industrial[ edit ] Significant improvements in working conditions took place, partly through greater competition for labour and partly through legislative provisions. Enacted compulsory trade unionism A Factories Act amendment introduced a hour, five-day working week, with eight public holidays: Legislation in and made the new hour workweek almost universal, in industry as well as in shops and offices.
This new, more progressive system led to improvements in the pay and working conditions of New Zealanders who had never had a trade union to represent them. The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act restored full jurisdiction to the Arbitration Court and required the court to make general orders fixing basic wages for both men and women which would apply to all awards and agreements in force.
The government experimented with cooperative shops in the rapidly expanding post-war suburbs. Other provisions of the act included the provision of a canteen if there were more than people requiring meals at the factory, an increase in the air space available to each person from to cubic feet 7.
However the League proved to be ineffectual, and was unable to prevent the Japanese invasion of Manchuria or the Italian invasion of Abyssinia. Under Labour, the New Zealand representative in the League spoke strongly against appeasement of aggressors, particularly the Italian invasion of Abyssinia and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
During the war, conscription was introduced. This led some to accuse Labour of hypocrisy, as it had strongly opposed conscription in World War I.
The government argued that while the First World War had been an unnecessary imperialist scuffle, the Second World War was a just war against fascist aggressors. Following the war, Fraser became involved in the setting up of the United Nations, and was especially concerned that small countries not be marginalised by the great powers.
Peacetime conscription was introduced inwhich proved to be an unpopular decision. The Finance Act required the reversal of all cuts made in wages and salaries during the Depression period. A Bureau of Industry was established to plan new industries and reorganise existing ones by a system of licensing.
The graduated land tax was reintroduced at high rates. The top rate of income tax was significantly increased, from The budget, which raised taxes, marked the beginnings of Keynesian thinking being explicitly followed in New Zealand. Various attempts at government planning were made.
The Industrial Efficiency Act of established a Bureau of Industry to guide the Minister of Industries and Commerce on planning and development, whilst the Organisation for National Development was set up in with the aim of studying and making plans for a post-war society.
Import and exchange controls were introduced in response to exhausting sterling reserves. During the Second World War, price controls were extended to prevent profiteering  and subsidies on various foodstuffs were introduced.
The introduction in of the Pharmaceutical Supplies Benefit provided for a wide range of drugs to be supplied free on the prescription of a registered medical practitioner. With regards to mortuaries, the Regulations specified the need to adequately and conveniently provide hot and cold water services.
References to the water supply in the legislation are made within the context of cleaning washing. Deaths from typhoid fever, rheumatic fever, diphtheria, appendicitis, influenza, and tuberculosis fell dramatically, which the average life expectancy increased.
In addition, the infant mortality rate fell, from The qualifying age for old-age benefits was reduced from 65 to Family allowances were extended. New welfare benefits were introduced for orphans and those whose incomes had ceased on account of sickness.
Provision was made for emergency benefits for persons suffering hardship who were not entitled to any other benefits. As a result of this expansion of coverage, the number of families in receipt of these payments rose from 42, to ,The Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) is an independent non-statutory committee established by the Australian Government Minister for Health in Page 1 of 44 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction The review of the literature for this study focuses on education and its role in shaping the future of students in K to 12 Curriculum in response to global competitiveness particularly in ASEAN Economic Community by legislation, which created the “welfare state.” Labour enacted a comprehensive program of national insurance, based upon the Beveridge Report (prepared by economist William Beveridge and advocating state action to control unemployment, along with the introduction of free health insurance and contributory social insurance) but differing .
History of Welfare in Canada Selected readings Updated September 11, Page révisée le 11 septembre [ Go to Canadian Social Research Links Home Page]. Social exclusion literature review September 08 3 r-bridal.comuction ‘ social exclusion is a theoretical concept, a lens through which people look at reality and not reality itself’.
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