Reading- ages 9 light gray13 dark grayand 17 black. Debate on the origins of the racial achievement gap[ edit ] Researchers have not reached consensus about the causes of the academic achievement gap ; instead, there exists a wide range of studies that cite an array of factors, both cultural and structural, that influence student performance in school. Annette Lareau suggested that students who lack middle-class cultural capital and have limited parental involvement are likely to have lower academic achievement than their better resourced peers.
Rising against this tragedy, the Civil Rights Act of outlawing housing discrimination was signed into law. Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their fists in a black power salute as they received their medals at the Summer Olympics in Mexico City.
Arthur Ashe became the first African American to win the U. Open singles title, and Shirley Chisholm became the first African American woman elected to the House of Representatives.
The same year, the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, better known as the Kerner Commission, delivered a report to President Johnson examining the causes of civil unrest in African American communities. Where do we stand as a society today? In this brief report, we compare the state of black workers and their families in with the circumstances of their descendants today, 50 years after the Kerner report was released.
We find both good news and bad news. While African Americans are in many ways better off in absolute terms than they were inthey are still disadvantaged in important ways relative to whites.
In several important respects, African Americans have actually lost ground relative to whites, and, in a few cases, even relative to African Americans in Following are some of the key findings: African Americans today are much better educated than they were in but still lag behind whites in overall educational attainment.
They are also more than twice as likely to have a college degree as in but are still half as likely as young whites to have a college degree. The substantial progress in educational attainment of African Americans has been accompanied by significant absolute improvements in wages, incomes, wealth, and health since But black workers still make only With respect to homeownership, unemployment, and incarceration, America has failed to deliver any progress for African Americans over the last five decades.
In these areas, their situation has either failed to improve relative to whites or has worsened. In the black unemployment rate was 7. Inthe black homeownership rate was just over 40 percent, virtually unchanged sinceand trailing a full 30 points behind the white homeownership rate, which saw modest gains over the same period.
And the share of African Americans in prison or jail almost tripled between and and is currently more than six times the white incarceration rate. Educational attainment The most important development since is that African Americans today are much better educated than they were in These absolute improvements in educational attainment—including substantial increases in both high school and college completion rates—have opened important doors for black workers compared with their counterparts 50 years ago.
In relative terms, African Americans today are almost as likely as whites to have completed high school. But even though the share of younger African Americans with a college degree has more than doubled, African Americans today are still only about half as likely to have a college degree as whites of the same age.
High school graduation rates. Over the last five decades, African Americans have seen substantial gains in high school completion rates.African American women have played a vital role in the history of our Nation and our Army since the American Revolution. Their patriotism, loyalty and leadership, coupled with their hard work.
Laurence Ralph, John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Social Sciences in the Departments of Anthropology and African and African American Studies, will give a talk on the history of police violence in the United States.
Chapter 5 African Americans: From Segregation to Modern Institutional Discrimination and Modern Racism of Topeka. in (hereafter.
Brown). The Supreme Court reversed the. Plessy v. Ferguson.
decision of and ruled that racially separate facilities . During the war, which the United States had entered in December , a large proportion of African American soldiers overseas were in service units, and combat troops remained segregated. You can read more of this story here. Gender achievement gap in the United States See also: Sex and intelligence For the past fifty years, there has been a gap in the educational achievement of males and females in the United States, but which gender has been disadvantaged has fluctuated over the years.
Which statement from "I Have a Dream" expresses the bleak history of African Americans in the United States? A. "And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom." B. "Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred." C.