What are the 2 stages of protein synthesis

Collagen has an unusual amino acid composition and sequence: Glycine is found at almost every third residue. Collagen contains two uncommon derivative amino acids not directly inserted during translation. These amino acids are found at specific locations relative to glycine and are modified post-translationally by different enzymes, both of which require vitamin C as a cofactor.

What are the 2 stages of protein synthesis

What happens in the stages of protein synthesis? Follow Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes Sorry, something has gone wrong. The first stage of protein synthesis is transcription.

The DNA helix is untwisted by the enzyme dna helixase. Then the DNA is split into two as the hydrogen bonds are broken between the complementary base pairs. However this mRNA strand leaves the nucleus via the nuclear pores.

The second step of protein synthesis is translation, which occurs in the cytoplasm and requires ribosomes. A small ribosomal subunit attaches to the bottom of the mRNA strand, and a large ribosomal subunit to the top of the mRNA.

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Then the synthesis can begin. For it to start the first codon base triplet must be methionine AUG. Then the anticodons on a tRNA with an amino acid comes into the large ribosome unit and matches with a codon.

Then the next anticodon comes along. Before the tRNA leaves the ribosome polmerase creates a peptide bond between the amino acids. Then the tRNA leaves the ribosome, leaving the amino acid behind. This process repeats itself until it reaches a stop codon. Then the amino acid chain polypeptide is released into the cytoplasm as a protein when the ribosome and mRNA separate.

This protein is in its primary structure the arrangement. It can then assume its secondary structure alpha helix or beta pleated sheet. Then tertiary 3d precise shape globular of fibrous.See the Skin Health Overview article. Overview.

What are the 2 stages of protein synthesis

The antioxidant properties of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and its role in collagen synthesis make vitamin C a vital molecule for skin health. Dietary and topical ascorbic acid have beneficial effects on skin cells, and some studies have shown that vitamin C may help prevent and treat ultraviolet (UV)-induced photodamage.

What are the 2 stages of protein synthesis

* Transcription * * mRNA is transcribed from DNA and floats into the cytoplasm * Translation * * mRNA is translated in a ribosome into a peptide. The lac Operon in E. coli. Introduction. Concept 1: Gene Regulation in Bacteria. Review (1 page) Concept 2: The Lactose Operon.


Review (2 pages) Concept 3: The lac Operator. Concept 4: The lac Regulatory Gene. Concept 5: The Lac Repressor Protein. Collagen / ˈ k ɒ l ə dʒ ɪ n / is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content.


Collagen consists of amino acids wound together to form triple-helices to form of elongated fibrils. Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA), co-translational transport, and post.

Chromatin Structure Histone Genes and Histone Proteins. Chromatin is a term designating the structure in which DNA exists within cells. The structure of chromatin is determined and stabilized through the interaction of the DNA with DNA-binding proteins.