Overview[ edit ] Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a confidential " system " — a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime. Many definitions tend to postulate or assume that complexity expresses a condition of numerous elements in a system and numerous forms of relationships among the elements. However, what one sees as complex and what one sees as simple is relative and changes with time.
Corporate Funding And you thought the Bush administration was bad. The threat is money—specifically, the decline of government support for science and the growing dominance of private spending over American research.
The trend is undeniable. The EPA, for example, recently began conducting the first nationwide study on the air quality effects of large-scale animal production. Livestock producers, not taxpayers, are slated to pay for the study.
Research universities, too, are rapidly privatizing. Both public and private institutions now receive a shrinking portion of their overall funding from government sources. They are looking instead to private industry and other commercial activities to enhance their funding.
These included stock options, consulting fees, and patents. Is all this truly harmful to science? The question becomes both one of disclosure and how much of a conflict you can have and still be seen as an objective and knowledgeable reviewer of information.
So is private funding a boon or a bane for American science? The answer, like good science itself, requires looking carefully at how the phenomenon is playing out in the real world. An esteemed cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic, Nissen has written more than articles and served as the immediate past president of the American College of Cardiology.
Working in a bustling academia-affiliated medical center has given Nissen a unique perspective on the benefits and risks of privatization.
That changed with the rise of biotechnology and the passage of landmark congressional legislation known as the Bayh-Dole Act. Passed inthe act granted universities and their professors automatic rights to own and commercialize federally funded research.
The goal was to unlock financial incentives that would speed the pace of American scientific innovation.
Overnight, many of the cultural taboos associated with overt commercial profiteering on campus began to evaporate. Nissen believes that interactions between academia and industry are crucial to the development of new treatments.
He also accepts sponsored research grants from industry, both to test drugs and develop new treatments, although he tries to limit his personal financial conflicts of interest by requiring that any other consulting fees and honoraria be given directly to charity.
Still, he is clearly troubled by the threat that privatization poses to academic autonomy—and to research objectivity. But drug companies are increasingly keeping physicians and their patients in the dark.
Searching the Internet, Nissen stumbled upon a remarkable cache of data belonging to Glaxo. His search unearthed 42 Avandia clinical trials—only 15 of which had ever been published.
The lawsuit alleged that Glaxo had concealed negative trial data associated with its popular antidepressant drug, Paxil. When the data were properly analyzedthey showed that children given Paxil were actually two times more likely to experience suicidal thinking and behavior than children given a placebo, or sugar pill.
When Glaxo settled the suit, it denied having suppressed data and consented to posting results of all its clinical trials online—including its data on Avandia.
Nissen knew there were limitations to the public information he had. He lacked any original patient-level information, and a meta-analysis of prior drug studies is always less powerful than a large prospective, randomized clinical trial.
This May, however, Nissen felt compelled to alert doctors and patients to what he had found.
Publishing in The New England Journal of Medicine, Nissen reported that Avandia raised the risk of heart attacks in patients by 43 percent. The news made front-page headlines. After the hearing, the FDA completed its own meta-analysis of the original patient data and found virtually the same heart risks Nissen had reported.
Nevertheless, Nissen found himself under attack, often by people with explicit financial ties to the drug industry. Douglas Arbesfeld, a senior communications consultant at the FDA, disparaged Nissen in a biting e-mail to the media.
Press reports over the last 15 years detail how whistle-blowers inside academia and within the FDA who have attempted to expose drug-research and safety issues have been pressured. Some were threatened with legal action, others punished by their superiors and discredited.
Exactly the same thing happened in when we published a manuscript that suggested that Vioxx might be causing excess heart attacks. Three years later, Merck pulled the drug from the market.More than decades ago, companies started outsourcing their business processes and functions to offshore locations, primarily to cut down on costs and focus on core business activities at home.
Outsourcing is a worldwide phenomenon. The typical entrepreneur or small business owner is everything rolled into one.
However, today’s business environment has become an intricate science that requires a host of specialists that no small business owner can afford or ignore. Hiring a vendor to manage warehouses and distribution centers is no guarantee of superior performance, but it does offer flexibility.
Organizations have been outsourcing non-critical functions within the enterprise for years. Logistics activities such as transportation, warehousing, and distribution.
Mike Roberts. Mike Roberts is a partner, and co-founder, of Symphonia - a consultancy specializing in Cloud Architecture and the impact it has on companies and teams.. During his career Mike’s been an engineer, a CTO, and other fun places in-between.
6 The divisional structure A division is a distinct business set up within a larger company to ensure a certain product or market is handled and promoted as though it were a separate business. Outsourcing is "an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for an existing internal activity." It often involves the contracting of a business process (e.g., payroll processing, claims processing), operational, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center support).
The term "outsourcing" came from "outside resourcing" and.