While argumentation tends to focus on logic supported by verifiable examples and facts, persuasion can use unverifiable personal anecdotes and a more apparent emotional appeal to make its case. Additionally, in persuasion, the claim usually comes first; then the persuader builds a case to convince a particular audience to think or feel the same way.
Paragraph Structure Use effective paragraph structure to explain and support your thesis statement. Effective paragraphs are important in all types of writing. Your paragraphs guide your reader through the paper by helping to explain, substantiate, and support your thesis statement or argument.
Each paragraph should discuss one major point or idea.
An effective paragraph has three parts: Claim This is also sometimes called a topic sentence. This will be your way of announcing the main focus of your paragraph; it should tell the reader what your paragraph will be about.
Just as in the thesis statement, your topic sentences should be debatable. In other words, they should be arguable claims that you will try to "prove" with your evidence.
If you get stuck developing these claims, try to think of reasons why your thesis is true. Your "reasons" for this might include health benefits, environmental benefits, cost-effectiveness, and safety, so you would focus one paragraph on each of these topics.
One of the most common mistakes is to present a topic sentence that is actually an observation of facts or a description of events rather than an active argument.
Here are some sample claims for the "health benefits of soy" paragraph: Claim based on a fact or event weak: Soy milk contains healthy isoflavones and nutrients.
Claim based on an active argument stronger: The isoflavones and nutrients in soy milk help to protect the body from disease and promote good health, so soy is a better choice.
The first example is weak because it presents facts that cannot be disputed; the second example is stronger because it uses those facts to make an argument.
As you can see, the second example not only tells the reader that soy contains healthy isoflavones and nutrients, but it also argues that these facts make soy milk a better choice.
To evaluate whether your paper contains effective claims in each paragraph, read only the first sentence of each paragraph. These should tell you the main points that you are making throughout the paper.
Your claims will also prepare the reader for the second section of your paragraph. Evidence This is how you support, or back up, your claims. The evidence will help to "prove" each claim to the reader.
In a paper that incorporates research from secondary sources, your evidence may include information from articles, books, electronic sources, or any of the research you gathered.
The evidence may take the form of a direct quotation, paraphrased material, statistical data, or any other information from one of your sources that helps to support your claim.
Try to incorporate information from several sources into each paragraph. Avoid just "retelling" the information from a single author or article. Aim to represent a variety of opinions and views. Here are some examples of weak and strong evidence sections: Evidence that includes information from one source weak evidence: Soybeans are "complete protein" because they contain all eight amino acids Collins 1.
Collins points out that "as little as 25 mg of soy protein a day may decrease levels of LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides" 1 and this may reduce the chance of heart disease.
Since soy is a "low-glycemic index" food, it may help people trying to lose weight "feel more satisfied and less hungry until your next meal, which is beneficial for weight management and control" 1.
Evidence that includes information from a variety of sources stronger evidence: Scientists believe that soy milk has the potential to balance cholesterol levels in humans: Since soy milk is one of the easiest ways to incorporate soy into the diet, this is a good choice for people seeking to lower their LDL and triglycerides.
Soy milk also may reduce the potential for heart disease. Asian countries, which traditionally consume more soy protein, have a much lower incidence of heart disease and many types of cancer Berkeley 4.
Soy milk and cheese made from soy milk may help with weight loss since they contain less saturated fat than regular dairy products, although they contain about the same amounts of fat as reduced-fat milk and cheese Collins 1.
Some researchers even believe that soy may help to stimulate the metabolism Duke 4. Note that the second example seems more "balanced," because the author demonstrates knowledge of the subject and incorporates several expert opinions to back up the claim.
Sometimes your assignment will not require you to conduct research into secondary sources, and you may need to use your own ideas or experiences as evidence to back up your claims. Try to be very specific.Transcript of Presenting an Argument Claim: The state of Florida does not do enough to prevent texting and driving.
Counter claim: The state of Florida has a no texting and driving law. Typhoid Mary: Captive to the Public's Health [Judith Walzer Leavitt] on r-bridal.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. She was an Irish immigrant cook. Between and , she infected twenty-two New Yorkers with typhoid fever through her puddings and cakes; one of them died.
Tracked down through epidemiological detective work. ACADEMIC ESSAY STRUCTURES & FORMATS Standard American argumentative essays begin with an introduction that gives a main point (thesis).The thesis is supported by a series of body paragraphs with sub-points, and the essay ends with a r-bridal.com is a visual representation of .
Developing an Argument in Academic Writing.
Last updated May 23, When presenting an argument, the possible counter-arguments should be taken into account. Thus, an academic argument can be called as an evidence-based defense of a complex issue. Academic writing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres, normally in an impersonal and dispassionate tone, targeted for a critical and informed audience, based on closely investigated knowledge, and intended to reinforce or challenge concepts or r-bridal.com usually circulates within the academic world ('the academy'), but the academic writer may also find an audience outside via.
26 July some sort. This year, I had an opportunity to ex-amine a set of lesson plans that began the year with the writing of thesis statements. There was.